Inter-State River Water Disputes Act:
Why is it in the news?
The Chief Minister of Karnataka has stated that it is past time to review the Inter-State River Water Problems Act, claiming that it is producing more disputes than it is resolving. Karnataka is currently immersed in a protracted legal struggle with neighbouring Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Goa, and Andhra Pradesh over interstate water disputes involving the Cauvery, Mahadayi, and Krishna rivers.
The imperative of the hour:
- In a single move, the multi-tiered approach to settling interstate water problems is eliminated.
- The answer should be based on maximising the use of a river basin’s capacity and using technology, regardless of political considerations.
Between various states, there is a water dispute:
- Article 262 creates a process for resolving interstate water disputes. It contains two clauses:
- Parliament has the authority to adopt legislation to address any dispute or complaint about the use, distribution, and management of waters in any interstate river or river valley.
- Parliament may also designate that the Supreme Court or any other court shall not hear such a dispute or complaint.
- In accordance with the legislation’s provisions, the central government established the river boards act (1956) and the Inter-state water disputes act (1956).
- The river board act establishes river boards charged with the responsibility of regulating and developing the Interstate River and its valleys. This type of river board is formed at the request of the respective state governments.
- The interstate water dispute legislation empowers the federal government to establish an ad hoc tribunal to address disagreements between two or more states over the use of water in an interstate river. The tribunal’s decision would be decisive and definitive. Furthermore, the Act forbids the Supreme Court and any other court from adjudicating this case.
The 1956 Interstate Water Dispute Act:
- The 1956 Inter-State Water Dispute Act, which sets the legal framework for resolving such disputes, contains various flaws, including the absence of a time limit for resolving river water disputes.
- Delays occur as a result of the absence of a time limit for Tribunal adjudication, the absence of an upper age limit for the Chairman or Members, the stalling of work due to the appearance of any vacancy, and the absence of a time limit for publishing the Tribunal’s report.
- Since 1956, the River Boards Act 1956, meant to facilitate interstate collaboration in the development of water resources, has been a ‘dead letter.’
- The Central Water Commission (CWC) is responsible for the regulation of surface water, whilst the Central Ground Water Board of India is responsible for the regulation of groundwater (CGWB). Both organisations operate independently, and there is no forum for state governments to discuss water management.
Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme
Why is it in the news?
- The Ministry of Electronics and Information (MeitY) is accepting applications from 100 domestic firms, start-ups, and MSMEs for its Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme.
- In December 2021, MeitY introduced the DLI Scheme.
- The DLI Scheme will be extended for a five-year period, extending financial incentives and aid for infrastructure design.
- This will be extended to domestic enterprises, start-ups, and MSMEs at various stages of semiconductor design development and deployment, including integrated circuits, chipsets, system-on-chips, systems and intellectual property cores, and semiconductor linked design.
- The project aims to support at least 20 indigenous semiconductor design enterprises in reaching revenue of more than Rs. 1500 crore over the next five years.
- The Implementing agency would be the Centre for Advanced Computing Development (C-DAC), a scientific society managed by MeitY.
- Applicants who are accepted and receive incentives under the programme will be encouraged to keep their domestic status for a period of three years following their receipt of incentives.
- It is beneficially owned and managed by resident Indian individuals and/or corporations controlled by resident Indian people.
- To be eligible for the Scheme’s incentives, an applicant must meet the Scheme’s Threshold and Ceiling Limits.
- Additionally, the DLI Scheme will take a graded and proactive approach to identifying products of national importance and developing strategies for their complete or near-complete indigenisation and deployment, thereby advancing import substitution and value addition in strategic and societal sectors.
Millimetre-Wave Band Auctions for 5G
Why is it in the news?
- The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has requested comments on the band design, block size, and auction conditions for spectrum in the 5G bands, which span the Millimetre (mm) Wave band between 24.25-28.5 GHz.
- The millimetre wave band, abbreviated as mmWave, is a section of the radio frequency spectrum that spans the range of 24 to 100 GHz.
- This spectrum, as the name says, has a short wavelength.
- This spectrum is expected to provide quicker data transfer rates and shorter latencies, resulting in efficient and smooth data transport, as existing networks perform effectively at lower frequency bandwidths.
- 5G services could be delivered via low-frequency bands.
- They have a greater range and have been demonstrated to perform well in heavily populated regions that are prone to interference.
- These bands, however, fall short of the peak data speeds required for a fully immersive 5G experience.
As such, mmWave is a vital piece of the mobile service providers’ 5G jigsaw puzzle.
Why is it in the news?
- India’s Prime Minister paid tribute to the great Thiruvalluvar on Thiruvalluvar Day (January 15).
- Thiruvalluvar, sometimes spelled Valluvar, is a Tamil poet, philosopher, and saint. He is regarded as a cultural icon.
- Thirukkural, his most popular work, is a collection of couplets on politics, ethics, economy, and love (Sacred Couplets).
- It is believed that Tiruvalluvar and his wife, Vasuki, lived in Chennai (formerly Madras), Tamil Nadu.
- While the time period in which he lived is also debatable, some believe it was between the eighth and ninth centuries.
- Thiruvalluvar was born in 31 BC, according to MaraimalaiAdigal, a Tamil orator and pioneer of the Pure Tamil movement.
- Valluvar lived around 500 AD, according to Kamil Zvelebil, a Czech specialist in Indian literature and languages.
- Although Thiruvalluvar was most likely a poor Jain ascetic who worked as a weaver, both Buddhists and Shaivites claim him as their own, and he is especially revered by the lower castes.
- At 2000, Thiruvalluvar’s 133-foot-tall statue was unveiled in Kanyakumari.
- Another monument was revealed in Ulsoor, a Bengaluru suburb, in 2009. It was carved and constructed by V Ganapati Sthapati, a renowned architect and sculptor.
- A statue of Valluvar was also erected in Russell Square, London, outside the School of Oriental and African Studies.
- Thiruvalluvar has a temple within the Ekambareswarar temple complex in Chennai.
- ValluvarKotam, a temple-memorial, was constructed in 1976 in Chennai.
Islamic Cooperation Organization:
Why is it in the news?
- Iranian diplomats return to Saudi Arabia after years to take up positions in the Islamic forum.
- The Iranian delegation’s arrival at the Organization of Islamic Cooperation is the first such diplomatic gesture between Tehran and Riyadh since the two countries severed diplomatic relations in 2016.
- In 2016, following the assassination of renowned Shiite preacher Nimr al-Nimr, rioters attacked Saudi diplomatic offices in Iran.
- At the time, Riyadh broke ties with Tehran, while the OIC’s foreign ministers condemned the atrocity.
Concerning the OIC:
- It is a non-governmental organisation founded in 1969 and currently has 57 member nations;
- It is the world’s second-largest intergovernmental organisation, behind the United Nations.
According to the organization’s website, it acts as “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and seeks to “protect and maintain the Muslim world’s interests in the spirit of promoting global peace and harmony.”
- The OIC is permanently represented in the United Nations and the European Union; and the Permanent Secretariat is headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
India’s Importance of the OIC:
- In recent years, economic and energy interdependence between the OIC and India has increased.
- Constructivism’s development in international relations is frequently associated with the end of the Cold War, an event that conventional theories such as realism and liberalism failed to account for.
- In 1989, Nicholas Onuf coined the term “social constructivism” in his book “The World We Create.”
- He contended in this essay that nation-states, like humans, exist in a reality that is shaped primarily by them rather than by external material factors.
- Rather than being created, humans are made via our social and cultural contacts with others.
- Similarly, states construct their identities and interests through interstate exchanges and alliances, which influence the structures and institutions they create.
- While structures are real, substantial, and reasonably long-lasting, they serve their purpose only when communal meanings are attached to them.