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Active and Passive Immunity
An antigen, which can be in the form of a living or dead microorganism or another protein, can cause antibodies to be produced in the host body when the host is exposed to it. This type of immunity is referred to as “active immunity” in the medical community.
Active immunity, in contrast to passive immunity, is a gradual process that takes time to mount a fully effective immune response. It is possible to induce active immunity by deliberately injecting germs into the body during vaccination or by allowing infectious organisms to enter the body during a naturally occurring illness.
Passive immunity refers to the process in which ready-made antibodies are administered directly to the body in order to defend it against foreign invaders. It is a type of defence against infections.
It is believed that the high concentration of antibodies (IgA) in the yellowish fluid colostrum produced by the mother during the first few days of nursing is responsible for protecting the newborn from infection.
Additionally, the foetus receives antibodies from its mother, which are delivered through the placenta, during the course of pregnancy. Among the many manifestations of passive immunity are the following.
Vaccination and Antibiotics
Your doctor may prescribe antibiotic pills, capsules, or injections, such as penicillin, to treat your infection every time you become ill. These drugs are produced by microorganisms that are the source of these medications.
The disease-causing microorganisms in the patient’s body are either destroyed or slowed by these drugs. The medical word for such drugs is ANTIBIOTICS.
Bacteria and fungi are now producing antibiotics, which is a big advancement. Streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, to mention a few well-known antibiotics originating from fungi and bacteria, are only a few examples.
According to Wikipedia, Alexander Fleming created a disease-causing bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus] culture in 1929. In one of his culture plates, he noticed a few green mould [Penicillium notatum] spores, which he inspected right away. He noticed that the presence of mould slowed the growth of bacteria. It was actually efficient against a number of these pathogens. As a result of this, the mould penicillin was produced.
Antibiotics have greatly improved our ability to treat deadly diseases like plague, whooping cough, diphtheria, and leprosy, which used to kill millions of people around the world before their discovery. Antibiotics are now so widely used that we can’t imagine life without them.
Antibiotics used needlessly have been demonstrated to kill beneficial microorganisms in the body.
Certain particles in the environment, such as dust and pollen, cause hypersensitivity in some people. The above-mentioned allergic reaction could be caused by a pollen, mite, or other allergen allergy, which varies by location.Allergy is defined as the immune system’s overreaction to specific antigens found in the environment. Allergens are substances that elicit an immune response in the body when they are ingested. Antibodies of the IgE subclass are produced in reaction to them. Dust mites, pollens, animal dander, and other irritants are examples of allergens.
An allergic reaction is characterised by sneezing, watery eyes, a runny nose, and difficulty breathing. The mast cells emit chemicals like histamine and serotonin, which induce allergic reactions.The patient is exposed to or injected with extremely small amounts of suspected allergens, and the reactions are monitored and documented when diagnosing the aetiology of allergies.
Antihistamines, adrenaline, and steroids are some of the drugs that can aid with allergy symptoms.
Immunity to autoimmunity
The ability to identify alien organisms (such as pathogens) from self-cells in the environment is thought to have given rise to memory-based acquired immunity in higher vertebrates.
While we investigate what is causing this, there are two corollaries to this capacity that must be understood.
Higher vertebrates, for example, can tell the difference between alien chemicals and foreign species. This trait is the focus of the majority of experimental immunology.
Second, the body can sometimes attack its own cells for unknown reasons, such as genetics and other variables. The phrase “auto-immune sickness” refers to the damage done to the body as a result of this process.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto-immune disease that affects a large number of people in modern society.
The Body’s Immune System
The human immune system’s lymphoid organs, tissues, and cells, as well as soluble molecules like antibodies Aside from what you’ve read, the immune system is amazing in that it can recognise and react to foreign antigens while also remembering them. The immune system is involved in a variety of scenarios, including allergic reactions, auto-immune diseases, and organ donation.
The lymphatic system organs that are responsible for lymphocyte genesis, maturation, and proliferation.
The bone marrow and thymus are the primary lymphoid organs, where immature lymphocytes grow into antigen-sensitive lymphocytes after being exposed to antigens.
After maturation, lymphocytes migrate to secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches of the small intestine, and the appendix.
Secondary lymphoid organs serve as locations of contact between lymphocytes and antigens, following which lymphocytes multiply and become body effector cells.
The primary lymphoid organ, the bone marrow, is in charge of producing all blood cells, including lymphocytes.
PIB News Analysis
India is the world’s top exporter of cucumbers and gherkins.
During the months of April to October 2021, India exported 1,23,846 metric tonnes of cucumber and gherkins for USD 114 million.
In the previous fiscal year, India’s agricultural processed product exports of pickled cucumber, often known as gherkins or cornichons, surpassed USD 200 million.
India exported 2,23,515 metric tonnes of cucumber and gherkins worth USD 223 million in 2020-21.
The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) implemented a series of initiatives in infrastructure development, product promotion in the global market, and adherence to the food safety management system in processing units, as directed by the Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce & Industry.
Cucumbers and gherkins, which are produced and preserved by vinegar or acetic acid, and cucumbers and gherkins, which are provisionally preserved, are the two types of gherkins exported.
Gherkin cultivation, processing, and exports began in Karnataka in the early 1990s and quickly spread to the surrounding states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana. India produces over a quarter of the world’s gherkin supply.
Gherkins are currently exported to more than 20 countries, with the United States, France, Germany, Australia, Spain, South Korea, Canada, Japan, Belgium, Russia, China, Sri Lanka, and Israel being the most popular destinations.
Aside from its export potential, the gherkin sector contributes significantly to the establishment of rural jobs. Gherkin cultivation is carried out under contract farming by roughly 90,000 small and marginal farmers in India, covering a total area of 65,000 acres per year.
Gherkins that have been processed are exported in two forms: in bulk as an industrial raw material and in jars as a ready-to-eat product. Bulk production still accounts for a large portion of the gherkin market. There are approximately 51 large enterprises in India that produce and export gherkins in drums and ready-to-eat consumer packs.
Nation Celebrates National Girl Child Day
Every year on January 24, the country commemorates National Girl Child Day with the goal of providing support and opportunity to Indian girls. It strives to raise awareness about the rights of girls, as well as the importance of girls’ education, health, and nutrition, and to promote girls’ status in society in order to improve their living conditions. Discrimination based on gender is a serious issue that girls and women encounter throughout their lives. The Ministry of Women and Child Development established National Girl Child Day in 2008.
The Government’s Initiatives
Over the years, the Indian government has made various initiatives to enhance the lives of women and girls. The government has launched a number of campaigns and programmes, including:
- Save the Girl Child,
- Beti Bachao Beti Padhao,
- Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
- CBSE Udaan Scheme
- Free or subsidized education for girl child,
- Reservation for women in colleges and universities
PM unveils hologram statue of Netaji at India Gate
Aapda Prabandhan Puraskars are also given to Subhas Chandra Bose.
In 2003, Gujarat became the first state to pass a disaster-related law.
The Prime Minister traced the country’s catastrophe management evolution over time. He stated that the subject of disaster management had been with the Agriculture Department for many years. The main reason for this was that the Ministry of Agriculture was in charge of dealing with floods, heavy rains, hailstorms, and other natural disasters. According to the Prime Minister, However, the earthquake in Gujarat in 2001 revolutionised disaster management forever. “All departments and ministries have been assigned to relief and rescue efforts.
The Gujarat State Disaster Management Act was enacted in 2003 as a result of those experiences. Gujarat was the first state in the country to pass such legislation in response to the calamity. Later, in 2005, the Central Government, drawing on Gujarat’s rules, enacted a similar Disaster Management Act for the entire country,” he concluded.